Tinggalkan komentar

Kerajaan Sunda (Sunda Kingdom)

Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Kerajaan Sunda
  932–1579   
Wilayah Kerajaan Bersatu Sunda dan Galuh
Ibukota Berpindah-pindah antaraPajajaran, dan Kawali(Galuh). Pernah juga di Saunggalah (Kuningan)
Bahasa Bahasa SundaBahasa JawaBahasa Melayu Kuno
Agama HinduBuddhaSunda WiwitanIslam (mulai abad ke-14)
Pemerintahan Monarki
Sejarah
 – Prasasti Kebonkopi II 932
 – invansi Banten 1579
Mata uang Mata uang emas dan perak
Artikel ini bagian dari seri
Sejarah Indonesia
Sejarah Indonesia.png
Lihat pula:
Garis waktu sejarah Indonesia
Sejarah Nusantara
Prasejarah
Kerajaan Hindu-Buddha
Kutai (abad ke-4)
Tarumanagara (358–669)
Kalingga (abad ke-6 sampai ke-7)
Sriwijaya (abad ke-7 sampai ke-13)
Sailendra (abad ke-8 sampai ke-9)
Kerajaan Medang (752–1006)
Kerajaan Kahuripan (1006–1045)
Kerajaan Sunda (932–1579)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Dharmasraya (abad ke-12 sampai ke-14)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
Malayapura (abad ke-14 sampai ke-15)
Kerajaan Islam
Penyebaran Islam (1200-1600)
Kesultanan Samudera Pasai (1267-1521)
Kesultanan Ternate (1257–sekarang)
Kerajaan Pagaruyung (1500-1825)
Kesultanan Malaka (1400–1511)
Kerajaan Inderapura (1500-1792)
Kesultanan Demak (1475–1548)
Kesultanan Aceh (1496–1903)
Kesultanan Banten (1527–1813)
Kesultanan Cirebon (1552 – 1677)
Kesultanan Mataram (1588—1681)
Kesultanan Siak (1723-1945)
Kerajaan Kristen
Kerajaan Larantuka (1600-1904)
Kolonialisme bangsa Eropa
Portugis (1512–1850)
VOC (1602-1800)
Belanda (1800–1942)
Kemunculan Indonesia
Kebangkitan Nasional (1899-1942)
Pendudukan Jepang (1942–1945)
Revolusi nasional (1945–1950)
Indonesia Merdeka
Orde Lama (1950–1959)
Demokrasi Terpimpin (1959–1965)
Masa Transisi (1965–1966)
Orde Baru (1966–1998)
Era Reformasi (1998–sekarang)

Gunung Pulosari, tempat kramat kerajaan Sunda

Kerajaan Sunda adalah kerajaan yang pernah ada antara tahun 932 dan 1579 Masehi di bagian Barat pulau Jawa (Provinsi BantenJakarta,Jawa Barat, dan sebagian Jawa Tengah sekarang). Kerjaan ini bahkan pernah menguasai wilayah bagian selatan Pulau Sumatera. Kerajaan ini bercorak Hindu dan Buddha,[1] kemudian sekitar abad ke-14 diketahui kerajaan ini telah beribukota di Pakuan Pajajaran serta memiliki dua kawasan pelabuhan utama di Kalapa dan Banten.[2]

Kerajaan Sunda runtuh setelah ibukota kerajaan ditaklukan oleh Maulana Yusuf pada tahun 1579. Sementara sebelumnya kedua pelabuhan utama Kerajaan Sunda itu juga telah dikuasai oleh Kerajaan Demak pada tahun 1527, Kalapa ditaklukan oleh Fatahillah dan Banten ditaklukan oleh Maulana Hasanuddin.

Catatan sejarah

Padrão Sunda Kalapa (1522), sebuah pilar batu untuk memperingati perjanjian Sunda-Portugis, Museum Nasional Indonesia, Jakarta.

Meskipun nama Sunda disebutkan dalam prasasti, naskah-naskah kuno, dan catatan sejarah dari luar negeri, Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro dan Nugroho Notosusanto menyatakan bahwa belum begitu banyak prasasti yang ditemukan di Jawa Barat dan secara jelas menyebutkan nama kerajaannya, walau dalam berbagai sumber kesusastraan, secara tegas Sunda merujuk kepada nama kawasan.[3] Diduga sebelum keruntuhannya tahun 1579, Kerajaan Sunda telah mengalami beberapa kali perpindahan pusat pemerintahannya, dimulai dari Galuh dan berakhir di Pakuan Pajajaran.

Catatan sejarah dari Cina

Menurut Hirth dan Rockhill,[4] ada sumber Cina tertentu mengenai Kerajaan Sunda. Pada saat Dinasti Sung Selatan, inspektur perdagangan dengan negara-negara asing, Zhao Rugua mengumpulkan laporan dari para pelaut dan pedagang yang benar-benar mengunjungi negara-negara asing. Dalam laporannya tentang negara Jauh, Zhufan Zhi, yang ditulis tahun 1225, menyebutkan pelabuhan di “Sin-t’o”. Zhao melaporkan bahwa:

“Orang-oarang tinggal di sepanjang pantai. Orang-orang tersebut bekerja dalam bidang pertanian, rumah-rumah mereka dibangun diatas tiang (rumah panggung) dan dengan atap jerami dengan daun pohon kelapa dan dinding-dindingnya dibuat dengan papan kayu yang diikat dengan rotan. Laki-laki dan perempuan membungkus pinggangnya dengan sepotong kain katun, dan memotong rambut mereka sampai panjangnya setengah inci. Lada yang tumbuh di bukit (negeri ini) bijinya kecil, tetapi berat dan lebih tinggi kualitasnya dari Ta-pan (Tuban, Jawa Timur). Negara ini menghasilkan labu, tebu, telur kacang dan tanaman.”

Buku perjalanan Cina Shunfeng xiangsong dari sekitar 1430 mengatakan :

“Dalam perjalanan ke arah timur dari Shun-t’a, sepanjang pantai utara Jawa, kapal dikemudikan 97 1/2 derajat selama tiga jam untuk mencapai Kalapa, mereka kemudian mengikuti pantai (melewati Tanjung Indramayu), akhirnya dikemudikan 187 derajat selama empat jam untuk mencapai Cirebon. Kapal dari Banten berjalan ke arah timur sepanjang pantai utara Jawa, melewati Kalapa, melewati Indramayu, melewati Cirebon.”

Catatan sejarah dari Eropa

Laporan Eropa berasal dari periode berikutnya menjelang jatuhnya Kerajaan Sunda oleh kekuatan Kesultanan Banten. Salah satu penjelajah itu adalahTomé Pires dari Portugal. Dalam bukunya Suma Oriental (1513 – 1515) ia menulis bahwa:

“Beberapa orang menegaskan bahwa kerajaan Sunda luasnya setengah dari seluruh pulau Jawa; sebagian lagi mengatakan bahwa Kerajaan Sunda luasnya sepertiga dari pulau Jawa dan ditambah seperdelapannya.”

Temuan arkeologi

Di wilayah Jawa Barat ditemukan beberapa candi, antara lain Percandian Batujaya di Karawang (abad ke-2 sampai ke-12) yang bercorak Buddha, serta percandian Hindu yaitu Candi Bojongmenje di Kabupaten Bandung yang berasal dari abad ke-7 (sezaman dengan percandian Dieng), dan Candi Cangkuangdi Leles, Garut yang bercorak Hindu Siwa dan diduga berasal dari abad ke-8 Masehi. Siapa yang membangun candi-candi ini masih merupakan misteri, namun umumnya disepakati bahwa candi-candi ini dikaitkan dengan kerajaan Hindu yang pernah berdiri di Jawa Barat, yaitu Tarumanagara, Sunda dan Galuh.

Di Museum Nasional Indonesia di Jakarta terdapat sejumlah arca yang disebut “arca Caringin” karena pernah menjadi hiasan kebun asisten-residenBelanda di tempat tersebut. Arca tersebut dilaporkan ditemukan di Cipanas, dekat kawah Gunung Pulosari, dan terdiri dari satu dasar patung dan 5 arca berupa Shiwa Mahadewa, DurgaBatara GuruGanesha dan Brahma. Coraknya mirip corak patung Jawa Tengah dari awal abad ke-10.

Di situs purbakala Banten Girang, yang terletak kira-kira 10 km di sebelah selatan pelabuhan Banten sekarang, terdapat reruntuhan dari satu istana yang diperkirakan didirikan di abad ke-10. Banyak unsur yang ditemukan dalam reruntuhan ini yang menunjukkan pengaruh Jawa Tengah.

Situs-situs arkeologi lain yang berkaitan dengan keberadaan Kerajaan Sunda, masih dapat ditelusuri terutama pada kawasan muara Sungai Ciliwungtermasuk situs Sangiang di daerah Pulo Gadung. Hal ini mengingat jalur sungai merupakan salah satu alat transportasi utama pada masa tersebut.[5]

Naskah Kuno[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selain dari beberapa prasasti dan berita dari luar, beberapa karya sastra dan karya bentuk lainnya dari naskah lama juga digunakan dalam merunut keberadaan Kerajaaan Sunda,[6] antaranya naskah Carita ParahyanganPararatonBujangga Manik, naskah didaktik Sanghyang siksakanda ng karesian, dan naskah sejarah Sajarah Banten.[7]

Berdirinya kerajaan Sunda

Berdasarkan Prasasti Kebonkopi II, yang berbahasa Melayu Kuno dengan tarikh 932, menyebutkan seorang “Raja Sunda menduduki kembali tahtanya”.[8]Hal ini dapat ditafsirkan bahwa Raja Sunda telah ada sebelumnya.[3] Sementara dari sumber Tiongkok pada buku Zhufan Zhi yang ditulis pada tahun 1178oleh Zhao Rugua menyebutkan terdapat satu kawasan dari San-fo-ts’i yang bernama Sin-to kemudian dirujuk kepada Sunda.[9]

Menurut naskah Wangsakerta, naskah yang oleh sebagian orang diragukan keasliannya serta diragukan sebagai sumber sejarah karena sangat sistematis, menyebutkan Sunda merupakan kerajaan yang berdiri menggantikan kerajaan Tarumanagara. Kerajaan Sunda didirikan oleh Tarusbawapada tahun 669 (591 Saka). Kerajaan ini merupakan suatu kerajaan yang meliputi wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Provinsi Banten,Jakarta, Provinsi Jawa Barat, dan bagian barat Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Sebelum berdiri sebagai kerajaan yang mandiri, Sunda merupakan bawahan Tarumanagara. Raja Tarumanagara yang terakhir, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (memerintah hanya selama tiga tahun, 666669 M), menikah dengan Déwi Ganggasari dari Indraprahasta. Dari Ganggasari, beliau memiliki dua anak, yang keduanya perempuan. Déwi Manasih, putri sulungnya, menikah dengan Tarusbawa dari Sunda, sedangkan yang kedua, Sobakancana, menikah dengan Dapunta Hyang Sri Janayasa, yang selanjutnya mendirikan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Setelah Linggawarman meninggal, kekuasaan Tarumanagara turun kepada menantunya, Tarusbawa. Hal ini menyebabkan penguasa Galuh, Wretikandayun (612702) memberontak, melepaskan diri dari Tarumanagara, serta mendirikan Kerajaan Galuh yang mandiri. Tarusbawa juga menginginkan melanjutkan kerajaan Tarumanagara, dan selanjutnya memindahkan kekuasaannya ke Sunda, di hulu sungai Cipakancilan dimana di daerah tersebut sungai Ciliwung dan sungaiCisadane berdekatan dan berjajar, dekat Bogor saat ini. Sedangkan Tarumanagara diubah menjadi bawahannya. Beliau dinobatkan sebagai raja Sunda pada hari Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, bulan Yista, tahun 519 Saka (kira-kira 18 Mei 669 M). Sunda dan Galuh ini berbatasan, dengan batas kerajaanya yaitu sungai Citarum (Sunda di sebelah barat, Galuh di sebelah timur).

Wilayah kekuasaan

Berdasarkan naskah kuno primer Bujangga Manik (yang menceriterakan perjalanan Bujangga Manik, seorang pendeta Hindu Sunda yang mengunjungi tempat-tempat suci agama Hindu di Pulau Jawa dan Bali pada awal abad ke-16), yang saat ini disimpan pada Perpustakaan Boedlian, Oxford UniversityInggris sejak tahun 1627), batas Kerajaan Sunda di sebelah timur adalah Ci Pamali (“Sungai Pamali”, sekarang disebut sebagai Kali Brebes) dan Ci Serayu (yang saat ini disebut Kali Serayu) di Provinsi Jawa Tengah. Kerajaan Sunda yang berikbukota di Pajajaran juga mencakup wilayah bagian selatan pulau Sumatera. Setelah Kerajaan Sunda diruntuhkan oleh Kesultanan Banten maka kekuasaan atas wilayah selatan Sumatera dilanjutkan oleh Kesultanan Banten.[2]

Menurut Naskah Wangsakerta, wilayah Kerajaan Sunda mencakup juga daerah yang saat ini menjadi Provinsi Lampung melalui pernikahan antara keluarga Kerajaan Sunda dan Lampung. Lampung dipisahkan dari bagian lain kerajaan Sunda oleh Selat Sunda.

Menyebarnya Islam

Islam mulai masuk ke wilayah Tatar Pasundan pada abad ke-7 Masehi. Namun penyebarannya secara signifikan baru dimulai pada abad ke-13 Masehi.

Pada tahun 1416, Laksamana Zheng He dari Dinasti Ming melakukan ekspedisi ke-5 menuju Nusantara. Dalam rombongannya terdapat Syekh Hasanuddin, juga dikenal sebagai Syekh Qura yang berasal dari Champa. Saat armada Zheng He singgah di Karawang, Syekh Hasanuddin beserta pengikutnya turun dan bermukim di Tanjungpura. Atas izin Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana, Syekh Hasanuddin mendirikan pesantren bernama Pondok Qura di Tanjungpura, yang merupakan pesantren tertua di Jawa Barat. Ia kemudian menjadi guru dari Nyi Mas Subanglarang, salah-satu istri dari Prabu Sri Baduga Maharaja yang menganut Islam.

Masa penurunan

Sapeninggal Jayadéwata, kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh turun ke putranya, Prabu Surawisésa (1521-1535), kemudian Prabu Déwatabuanawisésa (1535-1543), Prabu Sakti (1543-1551), Prabu Nilakéndra (1551-1567), serta Prabu Ragamulya atau Prabu Suryakancana (1567-1579). Prabu Suryakancana ini merupakan pemimpin kerajaan Sunda-Galuh yang terakhir, sebab setelah beberapa kali diserang oleh pasukan Maulana Yusuf dari Kesultanan Banten, mengakibatkan kekuasaan Prabu Surya Kancana dan Kerajaan Pajajaran runtuh.[rujukan?]

Persekutuan antara Sunda dan Galuh

Putera Tarusbawa yang terbesar, Rarkyan Sundasambawa, wafat saat masih muda, meninggalkan seorang anak perempuan, Nay Sekarkancana. Cucu Tarusbawa ini lantas dinikahi oleh Rahyang Sanjaya dari Galuh, sampai mempunyai seorang putera, Rahyang Tamperan.[rujukan?]

Ibu dari Sanjaya adalah Sanaha, cucu Ratu Shima dari Kalingga di Jepara. Ayah dari Sanjaya adalah Bratasenawa/Sena/Sanna, Raja Galuh ketiga sekaligus teman dekat Tarusbawa. Sena adalah cucu Wretikandayun dari putera bungsunya, Mandiminyak, raja Galuh kedua (702-709 M). Sena pada tahun 716 M dikudeta dari tahta Galuh oleh Purbasora. Purbasora dan Senasebenarnya adalah saudara satu ibu, tetapi lain ayah.[rujukan?]

Sena dan keluarganya menyelamatkan diri ke Pakuan Pajajaran, pusat Kerajaan Sunda, dan meminta pertolongan pada Tarusbawa. Ironis sekali memang, Wretikandayun, kakek Sena, sebelumnya menuntut Tarusbawa untuk memisahkan Kerajaan Galuh dari Tarumanegara. Dikemudian hari, Sanjaya yang merupakan penerus Kerajaan Galuh yang sah, menyerang Galuh dengan bantuan Tarusbawa. Penyerangan ini bertujuan untuk melengserkan Purbasora.[rujukan?]

Saat Tarusbawa meninggal (tahun 723), kekuasaan Sunda dan Galuh berada di tangan Sanjaya. Di tangan Sanjaya, Sunda dan Galuh bersatu kembali. Tahun 732, Sanjaya menyerahkan kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh kepada puteranya Rarkyan Panaraban (Tamperan). Di Kalingga Sanjaya memegang kekuasaan selama 22 tahun (732754), yang kemudian diganti oleh puteranya dari Déwi Sudiwara, yaitu Rakai Panangkaran. Rarkyan Panaraban berkuasa di Sunda-Galuh selama tujuh tahun (732-739), lalu membagi kekuasaan pada dua puteranya; Sang Manarah (dalam carita rakyat disebut Ciung Wanara) di Galuh, serta Sang Banga (Hariang Banga) di Sunda.[rujukan?]

Sang Banga (Prabhu Kertabhuwana Yasawiguna Hajimulya) menjadi raja selama 27 tahun (739766), tetapi hanya menguasai Sunda dari tahun 759. Dari Déwi Kancanasari, keturunanDemunawan dari Saunggalah, Sang Banga mempunyai putera bernama Rarkyan Medang, yang kemudian meneruskan kekuasaanya di Sunda selama 17 tahun (766783) dengan gelar Prabhu Hulukujang. Karena anaknya perempuan, Rakryan Medang mewariskan kekuasaanya kepada menantunya, Rakryan Hujungkulon atau Prabhu Gilingwesi dari Galuh, yang menguasai Sunda selama 12 tahun (783795).[rujukan?]

Karena Rakryan Hujungkulon inipun hanya mempunyai anak perempuan, maka kekuasaan Sunda lantas jatuh ke menantunya, Rakryan Diwus (dengan gelar Prabu Pucukbhumi Dharmeswara) yang berkuasa selama 24 tahun (795819). Dari Rakryan Diwus, kekuasaan Sunda jatuh ke puteranya, Rakryan Wuwus, yang menikah dengan putera dari Sang Welengan (raja Galuh, 806813). Kekuasaan Galuh juga jatuh kepadanya saat saudara iparnya, Sang Prabhu Linggabhumi (813-842), meninggal dunia. Kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh dipegang oleh Rakryan Wuwus (dengan gelarPrabhu Gajahkulon) sampai ia wafat tahun 891.[rujukan?]

Sepeninggal Rakryan Wuwus, kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh jatuh ke adik iparnya dari Galuh, Arya Kadatwan. Hanya saja, karena tidak disukai oleh para pembesar dari Sunda, ia dibunuh tahun 895, sedangkan kekuasaannya diturunkan ke putranya, Rakryan Windusakti. Kekuasaan ini lantas diturunkan pada putera sulungnya, Rakryan Kamuninggading (913). Rakryan Kamuninggading menguasai Sunda-Galuh hanya tiga tahun, sebab kemudian direbut oleh adiknya, Rakryan Jayagiri (916). Rakryan Jayagiri berkuasa selama 28 tahun, kemudian diwariskan kepada menantunya, Rakryan Watuagung, tahun 942. Melanjutkan dendam orangtuanya, Rakryan Watuagung direbut kekuasaannya oleh keponakannya (putera Kamuninggading), Sang Limburkancana (954-964).[rujukan?]

Dari Limburkancana, kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh diwariskan oleh putera sulungnya, Rakryan Sundasambawa (964-973). Karena tidak mempunyai putera dari Sundasambawa, kekuasaan tersebut jatuh ke adik iparnya, Rakryan Jayagiri (973-989). Rakryan Jayagiri mewariskan kekuasaannya ka puteranya, Rakryan Gendang (989-1012), dilanjutkan oleh cucunya, Prabhu Déwasanghyang (1012-1019). Dari Déwasanghyang, kekuasaan diwariskan kepada puteranya, lalu ke cucunya yang membuat prasasti Cibadak, Sri Jayabhupati (1030-1042). Sri Jayabhupati adalah menantu dariDharmawangsa Teguh dari Jawa Timur, mertua raja Airlangga (1019-1042).[rujukan?]

Dari Sri Jayabhupati, kekuasaan diwariskan kepada putranya, Dharmaraja (1042-1064), lalu ke cucu menantunya, Prabhu Langlangbhumi ((1064-1154). Prabu Langlangbhumi dilanjutkan oleh putranya, Rakryan Jayagiri (1154-1156), lantas oleh cucunya, Prabhu Dharmakusuma (1156-1175). Dari Prabu Dharmakusuma, kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh diwariskan kepada putranya, Prabhu Guru Dharmasiksa, yang memerintah selama 122 tahun (1175-1297). Dharmasiksa memimpin Sunda-Galuh dari Saunggalah selama 12 tahun, tapi kemudian memindahkan pusat pemerintahan kepada Pakuan Pajajaran, kembali lagi ke tempat awal moyangnya (Tarusbawa) memimpin kerajaan Sunda.[rujukan?]

Sepeninggal Dharmasiksa, kekuasaan Sunda-Galuh turun ke putranya yang terbesar, Rakryan Saunggalah (Prabhu Ragasuci), yang berkuasa selama enam tahun (1297-1303). Prabhu Ragasuci kemudian diganti oleh putranya, Prabhu Citraganda, yang berkuasa selama delapan tahun (1303-1311), kemudian oleh keturunannya lagi, Prabu Linggadéwata (1311-1333). Karena hanya mempunyai anak perempuan, Linggadéwata menurunkan kekuasaannya ke menantunya, Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa (1333-1340), kemudian ke Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa (1340-1350). Dari Prabu Ragamulya, kekuasaan diwariskan ke putranya, Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa (1350-1357), yang di ujung kekuasaannya gugur saat Perang Bubat. Karena saat kejadian di Bubat, putranya — Niskalawastukancana — masih kecil, kekuasaan Sunda sementara dipegang oleh Patih Mangkubumi Sang Prabu Bunisora (1357-1371).[rujukan?]

Prasasti Kawali di Kabuyutan Astana Gedé, Kawali, Ciamis.

Sapeninggal Prabu Bunisora, kekuasaan kembali lagi ke putra Linggabuana, Niskalawastukancana, yang kemudian memimpin selama 104 tahun (1371-1475). Dari isteri pertama, Nay Ratna Sarkati, ia mempunyai putera Sang Haliwungan (Prabu Susuktunggal), yang diberi kekuasaan bawahan di daerah sebelah barat Citarum (daerah asal Sunda). Prabu Susuktunggal yang berkuasa dari Pakuan Pajajaran, membangun pusat pemerintahan ini dengan mendirikan keraton Sri Bima Punta Narayana Madura Suradipati. Pemerintahannya terbilang lama (1382-1482), sebab sudah dimulai saat ayahnya masih berkuasa di daerah timur. Dari Nay Ratna Mayangsari, istrinya yang kedua, ia mempunyai putera Ningratkancana (Prabu Déwaniskala), yang meneruskan kekuasaan ayahnya di daerah Galuh (1475-1482).[rujukan?]

Susuktunggal dan Ningratkancana menyatukan ahli warisnya dengan menikahkan Jayadéwata (putra Ningratkancana) dengan Ambetkasih (putra Susuktunggal). Tahun 1482, kekuasaan Sunda dan Galuh disatukan lagi oleh Jayadéwata, yang bergelar Sri Baduga Maharaja.[rujukan?]

Raja-raja Kerajaan Sunda-Galuh

Menurut Prasasti Sanghyang Tapak yang berangka tahun 1030 (952 Saka), diketahui bahwa kerajaan Sunda dipimpin oleh Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwana Mandala Swaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa. Prasasti ini terdiri dari 40 baris yang ditulis dalam Aksara Kawi pada 4 buah batu, ditemukan di tepi sungai Cicatih di Cibadak, Sukabumi. Prasasti ini sekarang disimpan di Museum Nesional dengan nomor kode D 73 (dari Cicatih), D 96, D 97 dan D 98. Isi ketiga batu pertama berisi tulisan sebagai berikut[10]:

Selamat. Dalam tahun Saka 952 bulan Kartika tanggal 12 bagian terang, hari Hariang, Kaliwon, Ahad, Wuku Tambir. Inilah saat Raja Sunda Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa, membuat tanda di sebelah timur Sanghiyang Tapak. Dibuat oleh Sri Jayabupati Raja Sunda. Dan jangan ada yang melanggar ketentuan ini. Di sungai ini jangan (ada yang) menangkap ikan di sebelah sini sungai dalam batas daerah pemujaan Sanghyang Tapak sebelah hulu. Di sebelah hilir dalam batas daerah pemujaan Sanghyang Tapak pada dua batang pohon besar. Maka dibuatlah prasasti (maklumat) yang dikukuhkan dengan Sumpah.

Prasasti lain yang menyebut raja Sunda adalah Prasasti Batutulis yang ditemukan di Bogor. Berdasarkan Prasasti Batutulis berangka tahun 1533 (1455 Saka), disebutkan nama Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Aji di Pakuan Pajajaran Sri Sang Ratu Dewata, sebagai raja yang bertahta di Pakuan Pajajaran. Prasasti ini terletak di Jalan Batutulis, Kelurahan BatutulisKecamatan Bogor SelatanKota Bogor. Prasasti Batutulis dianggap terletak di situs ibu kota Pajajaran.[11] Prasasti ini dikaitkan dengan Kerajaan Sunda. Pada batu ini berukir kalimat-kalimat dalam bahasa danaksara Sunda Kuno. Prasati ini dibuat oleh Prabu Sanghiang Surawisesa (yang melakukan perjanjian dengan Portugis) dan menceritakan kemashuran ayahandanya tercinta (Sri Baduga Maharaja) sebagai berikut:

Semoga selamat, ini tanda peringatan Prabu Ratu almarhum. Dinobatkan dia dengan nama Prabu Guru Dewataprana, dinobatkan (lagi) dia dengan nama Sri Baduga Maharaja Ratu Aji di Pakuan Pajajaran Sri Sang Ratu Dewata. Dialah yang membuat parit (pertahanan) Pakuan.Dia putera Rahiyang Dewa Niskala yang dipusarakan di Gunatiga, cucu Rahiyang Niskala Wastu Kancana yang dipusarakan ke Nusa Larang. Dialah yang membuat tanda peringatan berupa gunung-gunungan, membuat undakan untuk hutan Samida, membuat Sahiyang Telaga Rena Mahawijaya (dibuat) dalam (tahun) Saka “Panca Pandawa Mengemban Bumi”.

Sayang sekali tidak/belum ditemukan prasasti-prasasti lainnya yang menyebutkan nama-nama raja Sunda setelah masa raja terakhir Tarumanagara sampai masa Sri Jayabupati dan antara masa Sri Jayabupati dan Rahiyang Niskala Watu Kancana. Namun demikian nama-nama raja Sunda lainnya hanya ditemukan pada naskah-naskah kuno.

Naskah kuno Fragmen Carita Parahyangan (koleksi Perpustakaan Nasional Kropak 406) menyebutkan silsilah raja-raja Sunda mulai dari Tarusbawa, penerus raja terakhir Tarumanagara, dengan penerusnya mulai dari Maharaja Harisdarma, Rahyang Tamperan, Rahyang Banga, Rahyangta Wuwus, Prebu Sanghyang, Sang Lumahing Rana, Sang Lumahing Tasik Panjang, Sang Winduraja, sampai akhirnya kepada Rakean Darmasiksa.

Naskah kuno Carita Parahyangan (koleksi Perpustakaan Nasional) menyebutkan silsilah raja setelah masa Tarumanagara. Yang pertama disebutkan adalah Tohaan di Sunda (Tarusbawa). Berikutnya disebutkan nama-nama raja penerusnya seperti Sanjaya, Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana, raja Sunda yang gugur dikhianati di Bubat (Jawa Timur) yang merupakan ayahnya Rahiyang Niskala Wastu Kancana, sampai Surawisesa.

Sedangkan nama-nama raja penerus Surawisesa yang berperang dengan Kesultanan Banten dan Kesultanan Cirebon dapat ditemukan dalam sejarah Banten.

Tahun-tahun masa pemerintaha para raja Sunda secara lebh terperinci dapat ditemukan pada naskah Pangéran Wangsakerta (waktu berkuasa dalam tahun Masehi):

  1. Tarusbawa (menantu Linggawarman669 – 723)
  2. Harisdarma, atawa Sanjaya (menantu Tarusbawa, 723 – 732)
  3. Tamperan Barmawijaya (732 – 739)
  4. Rakeyan Banga (739 – 766)
  5. Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766 – 783)
  6. Prabu Gilingwesi (menantu Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang, 783 – 795)
  7. Pucukbumi Darmeswara (menantu Prabu Gilingwesi, 795 – 819)
  8. Rakeyan Wuwus Prabu Gajah Kulon (819 – 891)
  9. Prabu Darmaraksa (adik ipar Rakeyan Wuwus, 891 – 895)
  10. Windusakti Prabu Déwageng (895 – 913)
  11. Rakeyan Kamuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913 – 916)
  12. Rakeyan Jayagiri (menantu Rakeyan Kamuning Gading, 916 – 942)
  13. Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942 – 954)
  14. Limbur Kancana (putera Rakeyan Kamuning Gading, 954 – 964)
  15. Munding Ganawirya (964 – 973)
  16. Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 – 989)
  17. Brajawisésa (989 – 1012)
  18. Déwa Sanghyang (1012 – 1019)
  19. Sanghyang Ageng (1019 – 1030)
  20. Sri Jayabupati (Detya Maharaja, 1030 – 1042)
  21. Darmaraja (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1042 – 1065)
  22. Langlangbumi (Sang Mokténg Kerta, 1065 – 1155)
  23. Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Ménakluhur (1155 – 1157)
  24. Darmakusuma (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1157 – 1175)
  25. Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu (1175 – 1297)
  26. Ragasuci (Sang Mokténg Taman, 1297 – 1303)
  27. Citraganda (Sang Mokténg Tanjung, 1303 – 1311)
  28. Prabu Linggadéwata (1311-1333)
  29. Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa (1333-1340)
  30. Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa (1340-1350)
  31. Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa (yang gugur dalam Perang Bubat, 1350-1357)
  32. Prabu Bunisora (1357-1371)
  33. Prabu Niskala Wastu Kancana (1371-1475)
  34. Prabu Susuktunggal (1475-1482)
  35. Jayadéwata (Sri Baduga Maharaja, 1482-1521)
  36. Prabu Surawisésa (1521-1535)
  37. Prabu Déwatabuanawisésa (1535-1543)
  38. Prabu Sakti (1543-1551)
  39. Prabu Nilakéndra (1551-1567)
  40. Prabu Ragamulya atau Prabu Suryakancana (1567-1579)

Hubungan dengan kerajaan lain

Singasari

Dalam Nagarakretagama, disebutkan bahwa setelah Kertanagara menaklukkan Bali (1206 Saka), kerajaan-kerajaan lain turut bertekuk lutut, tidak terkecuali Sunda. Jika ini benar, adalah aneh jika di kemudian hari, kerajaan Majapahit sebagai penerus yang kekuasaannya lebih besar justru tidak menguasai Sunda, sehingga nama Sunda harus termuat dalam sumpahnya Gajah Mada.[rujukan?]

Majapahit[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut Kidung Sunda, Majapahit berusaha untuk menaklukan Kerajaan Sunda dan beberapa kali melakukan penyerangan tapi berhasil digagalkan. Upaya terakhir Mejapahit untuk memperluas kekuasaannya adalah dengan upaya penyatuan melalui perkawinan antara raja Hayam Wuruk dari Majapahit dan putri Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi dari Kerajaan Sunda tapi usaha ini pun gagal dan berkahir dengan tragedi Bubat.

Eropa

Kerajaan Sunda sudah lama menjalin hubungan dagang dengan bangsa Eropa seperti Inggris,[rujukan?] Perancis[rujukan?] dan Portugis. Kerajaan Sunda bahkan pernah menjalin hubungan politik dengan bangsa Portugis. Dalam tahun 1522, Kerajaan Sunda menandatangani Perjanjian Sunda-Portugis yang membolehkan orang Portugis membangun benteng dan gudang di pelabuhanSunda Kelapa. Sebagai imbalannya, Portugis diharuskan memberi bantuan militer kepada Kerajaan Sunda dalam menghadapi serangan dari Demak dan Cirebon [12](yang memisahkan diri dari Kerajaan Sunda).

Catatan kaki

  1. ^ Geoffrey C. Gunn, (2011), History Without Borders: The Making of an Asian World Region, 1000-1800, Hong Kong University Press, ISBN 9888083341
  2. ^ a b Guillot, Claude. (1990). The Sultanate of Banten. Gramedia Book Publishing Division. ISBN 9794039225.
  3. ^ a b Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro, Nugroho Notosusanto, (1993), Sejarah nasional Indonesia: Zaman kuno, PT Balai Pustaka, ISBN 979407408X
  4. ^ Hirth, F., Rockhill, W.W., (1911). Chao Ju-kua, His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteen centuries, entitled Chu-fan-chi. St Petersburg
  5. ^ Uka Tjandrasasmita, (2009), Arkeologi Islam Nusantara, Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia, ISBN 979910212X
  6. ^ Noorduyn, Kerajaan Sunda dan Pakuan Pajajaran dilihat dari sumber-sumber prasasti dan naskah-naskah lama, Panitia Seminar, 1991
  7. ^ Nana Supriatna, Mamat Ruhimat, Kosim, IPS Terpadu (Sosiologi, Geografi, Ekonomi, Sejarah), PT Grafindo Media Pratama, ISBN 9797583376
  8. ^ Guillot, Claude, Lukman Nurhakim, Sonny Wibisono, (1995), La principauté de Banten Girang, Archipel, Vol. 50, pp 13-24
  9. ^ Soekmono, R. (2002), Pengantar sejarah kebudayaan Indonesia 2. Kanisius. ISBN 979-413-290-X.
  10. ^ Zahorka, Herwig (2007). The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka.
  11. ^ Indonesian palaeography: a history of writing in, Volume 4, Issue 1 By J. G. de Casparis
  12. ^ Herwig Zahorka (2007). The Sunda Kingdoms of West Java: From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor. Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka.

Rujukan

  • Aca1968Carita Parahiyangan: naskah titilar karuhun urang Sunda abad ka-16 Maséhi. Yayasan Kabudayaan Nusalarang, Bandung.
  • Ayatrohaedi2005Sundakala: cuplikan sejarah Sunda berdasarkan naskah-naskah “Panitia Wangsakerta” dari Cirebon. Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta.
  • Edi S. Ekajati. 2005. Polemik Naskah Pangeran Wangsakerta. Pustaka Jaya, Jakarta. ISBN 979-419-329-1
  • Guillot, Claude, Lukman Nurhakim, Sonny Wibisono, “La principauté de Banten Girang” (“Kerajaan Banten Girang”), Archipel, Tahun 1995, Volume 50, No. 50, halaman 13-24
  • Yoséph Iskandar1997Sejarah Jawa Barat: yuganing rajakawasa. Geger Sunten, Bandung.

Sunda Kingdom

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Sunda Kingdom
  669–1579   
The territory of Sunda Kingdom
Capital Pakuan Pajajaran, Kawali
Languages SundaneseSanskrit
Religion HinduismBuddhism,Sunda WiwitanIslam(14th century)
Government Monarchy
History
 – Coronation of king Tarusbawa and change the name from Tarumanagara to Sunda 669
 – Lost Sunda Kelapa toSultanate of Demak in 1527, Sultanate of Banten invasion in 1570s 1579
Currency Native gold and silvercoins
Part of a series on the
History of Indonesia
History of Indonesia.png
Prehistory
Early kingdoms
Kutai 300s
Tarumanagara 358–669
Kalingga 500s–600s
Srivijaya 600s–1200s
Sunda 669–1579
Medang 752–1006
Kahuripan 1006–1045
Kediri 1045–1221
Singhasari 1222–1292
Majapahit 1293–1500
Rise of Muslim states
Spread of Islam 1200–1600
Ternate Sultanate 1257–present
Samudera Pasai Sultanate 1267–1521
Malacca Sultanate 1400–1511
Cirebon Sultanate 1445–1677
Demak Sultanate 1475–1548
Aceh Sultanate 1496–1903
Pagaruyung Kingdom 1500–1825
Banten Sultanate 1526–1813
Mataram Sultanate 1500s–1700s
European colonisation
Portuguese 1512–1850
Dutch East India Co. 1602–1800
Netherlands East Indies 1800–1942, 1945–1950
Emergence of Indonesia
National Awakening 1908–1942
Japanese occupation 1942–1945
National Revolution 1945–1950
Independence
Liberal democracy 1950–1957
Guided Democracy 1957–1965
Transition 1965–1966
New Order 1966–1998
Reformasi 1998–present
Timeline
Portal icon Indonesia portal

The Sunda Kingdom was a Hindu kingdom located in western Java from 669 to around 1579, covering the area of present-day Banten,JakartaWest Java, and the western part of Central Java. According to primary historical records, the Bujangga Manik manuscript, the eastern border of the Sunda Kingdom was the Pamali River (Ci Pamali, the present day Brebes River) and the Serayu River (Ci Sarayu) in Central Java. Most accounts of the Sunda Kingdom come from primary historical records from the sixteenth century.

Historiography[edit]

Padrão of Sunda Kalapa (1522), a stone pillar commemorating the Sunda–Portuguese treaty, Indonesian National Museum, Jakarta.

Knowledge of the kingdom among Sundanese people has been kept alive through Sundanese Pantun oral tradition, the chant of poetic verses about the Golden Age of Sunda Pajajaran, and the legend of King Siliwangi ( Prabu Siliwangi), the most popular king of Sunda.

Most account and records of the Sunda Kingdom came from manuscripts dated from a period later than the Golden Age, such asWangsakertaCarita ParahyanganKidung SundaBujangga Manik, and Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara. Several stone inscriptions also mention the kingdom, such as JayabupatiKawali, and Batutulis.

Historical sources about the Sunda Kingdom[edit]

The earliest reference to the name “Sunda” being used to identify a kingdom is the Kebon Kopi II inscription dated 854 Saka (932 CE). The inscription was in old Javanese script, but the language used was old Malay. It translates as follows:

This memorial stone is to remark the saying of Rakryan Juru Pangambat (Royal Hunter), in 854 Saka, that the order of government is returned to the power of king of Sunda.

The inscription chandrasengkala (chronogram) written 458 Saka, however some historians suggested that the year of the inscription must be read backward as 854 Saka (932 CE) because the Sunda kingdom could not have existed in 536 CE, in the era of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara (358-669 CE).

Another reference to the kingdom is the Jayabupati inscription which consists of 40 lines written on four pieces of stone found on the Cicatih river bank in Cibadak, Sukabumi. The inscription is written in old Javanese script. The four inscriptions are now stored at the National Museum in Jakarta, under the codes D 73 (Cicatih), D 96, D 97 and D 98. The contents of the inscriptions (according to Pleyte):

Peace and well-being. In the year of Saka 952 (1030 AD), Kartika month on the 12th day on the light part, Hariang day, Kaliwon, first day, Wuku Tambir. Today is the day that king of Sunda Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Jayamanahen Wisnumurti Samarawijaya Sakalabuwanamandaleswaranindita Haro Gowardhana Wikramottunggadewa, makes his marks on eastern part of this Sanghiyang Tapak (insribed stone). Made by Sri Jayabupati King of Sunda. And may there be nobody allowed to break this law. In this part of river catching fish is forbidden, in the sacred area of Sanghyang Tapak near the source of the river. Up until the border of sacred Sanghyang Tapak marked by two big tree. So this inscriptions is made, enforced with an oath. Whoever breaks the law will be punished by these supranatural beings, die in horrible way like their brain being sucked, blood being drunk, intestines being destroyed, and chest is split in two. O being known by thee.., all the spirits.

The date of the Jayabupati inscription may be October 11, 1030. According to Pustaka Nusantara, Parwa III sarga 1, Sri Jayabupati reigned for 12 years, from 952 to 964 saka (1030 – 1042 AD). The inscription has an East Javanese style in lettering, language, and style, and mentions the current king by name.

Copperplate letters dating to the fifteenth century, including royal instructions, also imply the existence of the Sunda Kingdom. The copperplate inscription of Prasasti Kebantenan I (Jayagiri) reads that Raja Rahyang Niskala Wastu Kancana sent an order through Hyang Ningrat Kancana to the Susuhunan of Pakuan Pajajaran to take care of dayohan in Jayagiri and Sunda Sembawa, banning the collection of collecting taxes from the residents because they were knowledgeable about the (Hindu) religion and worshiped the gods. Prasasti Kebantenan II (Sunda Sembawa I)copperplate inscription announces Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482–1521), the king staying in Pakuan, approving an already delineated sacred estate (tanah devasasana) put at the disposal of the wiku (priests), which must not be split as it houses facilities for worship, which belong to the king.Prasasti Kebantenan III (Sunda Sembawa II) copperplate announces the king of Sunda’s sanctions of holy construction in Sunda Sembawa. ThePrasasti Kebantenan IV (Gunung Samaya) inscription says that Sri Baduga Maharaja, who ruled in Pakuan, sanctioned a sacred place (tanah devasana) at Gunung (mount) Samya (Rancamaya), the mentions a similar sacred estate to the one described in the Prasasti Kebantenan II inscription.

The primary source that contains informations about the daily life of late 15th to early 16th century Sunda Kingdom was found in Bujangga Manikmanuscript. The names of places, culture and customs, was described in great detail, it is one of the important specimen of Old Sundanese literature. The main character is Prince Jaya Pakuan alias Bujangga Manik, a Sundanese Hindu hermit, who, though a prince at the court of Pakuan Pajajaran, preferred to live a life of a man of religion. As a hermit he made two journeys from Pakuan Pajajaran to central and eastern Java and back, the second one including a visit to Bali. After his return he practiced asceticism on a mountain in western Java, where his bodily existence came to an end.[1] The manuscript dated from pre-Islamic Sunda. The language represents an older stage of Sundanese. It displays a marked influence from Javanese but does not contain one word which is tracable to Arabic. In the content of the story, too, Islam is completely absent. This manuscript specifically the mention of MajapahitMalaka and Demak allow us to date the writing of the story in the 15th century, probably the later part of this century, or the early 16th century at the latest.[2]

Historical sources from China[edit]

According to F. Hirt and W. W. Rockhill, there are Chinese sources concerning the Sunda Kingdom. At the time of the Southern Sung Dynasty, the inspector of trade with foreign countries, Chan Ju-kua, collected reports from sailors and merchants who had visited foreign countries. His report on far countries, Chu-fan-chi, written from 1178 to 1225 AD, mentions the deepwater harbor of Sin-t’o (Sunda). Chu-fan-chi reported that:

All along the shores, people are dwelling. The people are working in agriculture, their houses are on poles and the roofs are thatched with the bark of the leaves of palm trees and the walls were made with wooden boards tied together with rattan. Both men and women wrap round their loins a piece of cotton, and in cutting their hair they only leave it half an inch long. The pepper grown on the hills (of this country) is small-grained, but heavy and superior to that of Ta-pan (eastern Java). The country produces pumpkins, sugar cane, bottle gourd, beans and egg plants. As, however, there is no regular government in this country, the people are given to brigandage, on which account foreign traders rarely go there.

According to this source, the kingdom of Sunda produced high quality black pepper. The kingdom located in the western parts of Java near Sunda Strait, corresponds to today Banten, Jakarta and west part of West Java province. According to this source, the port of Sunda was under Srivijaya mandala domination. Port of Sunda was highly possible refer to port of Banten instead of Kalapa. Its capital is located 10 kilometres inland southward in Banten Girang near Mount Pulosari.

The Chinese book “shun-feng hsiang-sung” from about 1430 AD relates:

In this voyage eastward from Sunda, along the north coast of Java, ships steered 97 1/2o for three watches to make Kalapa; they then followed the coast (past Tanjung Indramayu), finally steering 187 1/2o for four watches to reach Cirebon. Ships from Banten proceeded eastward along the north coast of Java, past Kalapa, past Indramayu head, past Cirebon.

According to this source the port of Sunda was located east of Kalapa and later identified as port of Banten.

Historical resources from European explorers[edit]

European explorers also report the existence of the Sunda Kingdom. Tomé Pires from Portugal wrote in his report “Summa Oriental (1513–1515)”:

Some people affirm that the Sunda kingdom take up half of the whole island of Java; others, to whom more authority is attributed, say that the Sunda kingdom must be a third part of the island and an eight more. It ends at the river chi Manuk. The river intersects the whole island from sea to sea in such away that when the people of Java describe their own country, they say that it is bounded to the west by island of Sunda. The people hold that whoever passes this strait (the river Cimanuk) into the South Sea is carried off by violent currents and unable to return.[3]

The Portuguese report is dated from a later period of the kingdom, shortly before its fall to forces of the Sultanate of Banten.

Formation and growth[edit]

According to the Wangsakerta manuscript, King Tarusbawa from Sunda Sambawa, a vassal kingdom of Tarumanagara, succeeded his father-in-law as the 13th king of Tarumanagara. Tarumanagara’s prestige and power had been declining, likely due to a series of invasions from Srivijaya. Wishing to restore the glory of King Purnawarman, who reigned from the Purasaba (capital city) of Sundapura, in 670 AD Tarusbawa renamed Tarumanagara to the Sunda Kingdom. This event is confirmed by a Chinese source mentioning Tarumanagara’s last envoy was in 669 AD. Tarusbawa sent his emissary to the Chinese Emperor at the time to advise him of his ascension to the throne in 669 AD. He was crowned on the ninth of the month of Jesta, in 591 Saka, which corresponds to 18 May 669 AD.

Separation of Galuh and Sunda Kingdom[edit]

Citarum River separates Sunda and Galuh

According to the Wangsakerta manuscript, Wretikandayun, the lord of another former vassal kingdom of TarumanagaraGaluh Kingdom, used the establishment of the Sunda Kingdom as an excuse to split eastern Taruma from Tarusbawa’s Sunda. Since the crown prince of Galuh was the son-in-law of Queen Sima of Kalingga, a Hindu kingdom in central Java, Wretikandayun, supported by Kalingga, demanded that the remnant of what was known asTarumanagara‘s territory be divided into two kingdoms. Finding himself in an unfortunate position and unwilling to risk a civil war, King Tarusbawa granted Wretikandayun’s demand. In 670 AD, Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: the Sunda Kingdom in the west, and the Galuh Kingdom in the east, separated by the Tarum (Citarum) River.

Sanna and Purbasora[edit]

Tarusbawa was a good friend of Bratasena or Sena (709 – 716), the third king of Galuh; he was also known as Sanna, cited in the Canggal inscription (732 AD), and Sanjaya’s uncle. This friendship encouraged Tarusbawa to take Sanjaya as his son-in-law. Purbasora succeeded Bratasenawa (Sanna or Sena) on the Galuh throne by in 716. Purbasora was Wretikandayun’s grandson twice over—he was the child of his eldest son, Batara Danghyang Guru Sempakwaja, the founder of the Galunggung Kingdom and through his youngest son, Mandiminyak, the second king of Galuh (702-709 AD).

Purbasora and Sena were brothers as a result of an affair between Sempakwaja’s wife and Mandiminyak. Sempakwaja could not succeed his father because he was toothless, a shameful physical handicap considered unsuitable for a king at that time. So his younger brother inherited the Galuh throne from Wretikandayun. However, the son of Sempakwaja still felt he deserved the throne of Galuh. Moreover, King Sena had a doubtful scandalous origin, which fueled a Purbasora rebellion and the determination to take the Galuh throne from Sena.

With the aid of his father-in-law, King Indraprahasta, from a kingdom near present day Cirebon, Purbasora launched his coup on the Galuh throne. Defeated, Sena fled to Kalingga, the kingdom of his wife’s grandmother, Queen Shima.

Reunification of Sunda and Galuh[edit]

Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom coexisted under a strange and complex relationship, occasionally united under one king, and at other times allied kingdoms under different rulers.

Since the crown prince of Sunda died before King Tarusbawa, Princess Tejakencana (the daughter of the crown prince) was hailed as the heiress of Sunda. She married Rakeyan Jamri, son of Bratasenawa (the third king of Galuh Kingdom and a son of Wretikandayun) and Princess Sanaha (from Kalingga). In 723, Jamri succeeded Tarusbawa as second king of Sunda. As the lord of Sunda, he was known as Prabu Harisdarma and when he ascended the throne of Galuh he was known as Sanjaya.

The two kingdoms united as the Sunda Kingdom under the following kings:

  • Sanjaya (723 – 732 AD) with the capital city in Kawali Galuh (present-day Ciamis city)
  • Tamperan or Rakeyan Panaraban (in 732 – 739 AD) with the capital in Kawali Galuh
  • Wuwus (819 – 891 AD) with the capital city in Pakuan (present-day Bogor City)
  • Darmaraksa (891 – 895 AD) with the capital in Pakuan
  • Prabu Guru Darmasiksa with the capital city in Sawunggalah (present-day Kuningan city)
  • Rakeyan Jayadarma resided in Kawali
  • Prabu Ragasuci (1297–1303 AD) resided in Saunggalah
  • Prabu Citraganda (1303–1311 AD) resided in Pakuan
  • Prabu Lingga Dewata (1311–1333 AD) perhaps resided in Kawali
  • Prabu Ajiguna Wisesa (1333–1340 AD) resided in Kawali.
  • Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana (1340–1357 AD) resided in Kawali
  • Prabu Mangkubumi Suradipati/Prabu Bunisora (1357–1371 AD) resided in Kawali
  • Prabu Raja Wastu/Niskala Wastu Kancana (1371–1475 AD) resided in Kawali
  • Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482 to 1521 AD) resided in Pakuan

Sanjaya and Balangantrang[edit]

Sanjaya, the son of Sena’s sister Sannaha, determined to take revenge on Purbasora’s family. He requested aid from Tarusbawa, a friend of Sena. His wish was realised when he become the king of Sunda, reigning on behalf of his wife.

He prepared a special force, which he placed in the Gunung Sawal area with the help of Rabuyut Sawal, also a dear friend of Sena. This special force was led by Sanjaya, while the Sunda army was led by Patih Anggada. The raid was launched at nightfall. Almost all of Purbasora’s family was wiped out, except for Bimaraksa, Purbasora’s son-in-law; the minister of Galuh escaped with a handful of guards.

Bimaraksa, also known as Ki Balangantrang, was the Senapati (army general) of the kingdom. Balangantrang was also the grandson of Wretikandayun, as a child of his second son, Resi Guru Jantaka or Rahyang Kidul, and was also considered unfit to succeed Wretikandayun because he suffered from a hernia. Balangantrang hid in the village of Gègèr Sunten and raised anti-Sanjaya forces. He was supported by the kings of Kuningan and also by the remnants of the Indraprahasta army. Indraphrasta was annihilated by Sanjaya as revenge for helping Purbasora to oust Sena.

Sena asked Sanjaya to honor all of the Galuh royal family, except Purbasora. Sanjaya himself was not interested in ruling Galuh. He merely attacked it to fulfill his godfather’s wish to take revenge on Purbasora’s family. After defeating Purbasora, Sanjaya asked his uncle, Sempakwaja, in Galunggung to order Demunawan, the younger brother of Purbasora, to reign in Galuh. But Sempakwaja declined, fearing this to be Sanjaya’s trick to annihilate Demunawan.

Sanjaya himself could not find Balangantrang, so he accepted the Galuh throne. Realizing that he was unwelcomed at the Galuh court, and also that he was a Sunda king who must reside in Pakuan, he put Premana Dikusuma, grandson of Purbasora, in charge of Galuh. Premana Dikusuma at that time was a vassal king. At the age of 43 (born in 683 AD), he was already known as Rsi or an ascetic monk, because of his passion for learning and spiritual teaching since a young age, he is also known as Bagawat Sajalajaya.

Sanjaya also had legitimate right to Kalingga’s throne (from his grandmother’s side). Thus in 732 AD he chose to live in Kalingga (in the northern part of central Java) and later established theMataram Kingdom and Sanjaya Dynasty. In 732 he gave his right to western Java to his son from Tejakencana, Prince Tamperan (Rakeyan Panaraban). Rakeyan was a half-brother of Rakai Panangkaran, Sanjaya’s son from Sudiwara (daughter of Dewasinga, king of southern Kalingga).

Rakeyan Jayadarma[edit]

According to Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara parwa II sarga 3, Rakeyan Jayadarma was the son-in-law of Mahisa Campaka of Singhasari. Prince Jayadharma married Dyah Singamurti, also known as Dyah Lembu Tal. Sangrama Wijaya (Raden Wijaya), the first King of Majapahit, was the son of the Sunda king, Rakeyan Jayadharma. Except for Gajah Mada, who insisted on incorporating the Sunda Kingdom within the Majapahit realm, this is the likely reason why Majapahit kings were reluctant to attack the Sunda Kingdom. There was a sacred alliance between the Sunda Kingdom and the Majapahit Kingdom.

Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana[edit]

He resided in Kawali Galuh. He died in the Bubat War, Majapahit, in 1357, against the conspiracy crafted by the Majapahit prime minister, Gajah Mada. The tragedy’s prelude came with the intention of Hayam Wuruk, the king of Majapahit, to marry Princess Dyah Pitaloka (also known as Citraresmi), a daughter of Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana. The Sunda king and his royal family came to Majapahit, sailing through the Java Sea, to accompany and marry his daughter to Hayam Wuruk. The Sunda party erected the encampment on Bubat square in the northern part ofTrowulan, Majapahit capital, and awaited the proper wedding ceremony. However, Gajah Mada saw this event as an opportunity to demand Sunda’s submission to Majapahit overlordship, and insisted that instead of becoming the queen of Majapahit, the princess was to be presented as a concubine for the Majapahit king, as a token of her kingdom’s submission. The Sunda king was angered and humiliated by Gajah Mada’s demand.

As a result, there was a skirmish between the Sunda royal family and the Majapahit army. The Majapahit army decimated the Sunda royal family; almost the entire Sundanese royal party, including the princess, perished in this tragedy. Tradition mentioned that Princess Dyah Pitaloka committed suicide to defend the honor and pride of her country. After his death, Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana was revered by the Sundanese as Prabu Wangi (lit. king with pleasant fragrance) because of his heroic defense of his honor against Majapahit, and his descendants, the later kings of Sunda, were called Siliwangi (lit. successor of Wangi). The story of the Battle of Bubat is the main theme of the book Kidung Sunda.

Sri Baduga Maharaja[edit]

He is a grandchild of Prabu Wastu Kancana or Prabu Niskala Wastu, one of Prabu Wangi’s sons. Sri Baduga Maharaja is popularly known as Prabu Siliwangi in the Sundanese oral tradition ofPantun. He moved the government seat from Kawali back to Pakuan in 1482. Based on Prasasti Kebantenan copperplate inscription, he established a sacred estate (tanah devasasana) at Mount Samya (Rancamaya) and ordered that anyone entering was forbidden to disturb this area and forbade the imposition of taxes and other levies because this devasana contained Royal facilities for worship. He also announced that holy construction in Sunda Sembawa, which should be cared for and be undisturbed because the area stipulated is the residential area of the wiku (priests). According to Batutulis inscription, Sri Baduga Maharaja built defensive moats surrounding Pakuan Pajajaran; he built “gugunungan” (sacred mounds), established huts and sacred Samya forest, reserves for wood destined for offerings, and the Talaga Rena Mahawijaya Lake. Certainly, there was a good road to Sunda Kalapa (present-day Jakarta Metropolitan city) too, the most important harbor of the Sunda kingdom. At the time of Tome Pirés visit to Pakuan, Sri Baduga Maharaja reigned over the Sunda kingdom (1482 to 1521).

The year of his coronation in 1482 has been mentioned as the birth date of the present-day city of Bogor. However, there was an important settlement at the site already, and Pakuan had been the capital of the Sunda kingdom under previous kings. The reign of Sri Baduga Maharaja, also known as Prabu Siliwangi, was hailed as the “golden age” of the Sundanese people. The kingdom consolidated its rule and exercised power throughout western part of Java. It also marked the era of great prosperity resulting from efficient agriculture management and the thriving pepper trade in the region. This era of great wealth also marked the beginning of Sunda kingdom’s decline.

Decline[edit]

The Kingdom of Sunda anxiously watched the growing influence of the expansive Islamic Sultanate of Demak that finally succeed to destroy Majapahit in the sixteenth century. As a result of this event, only Blambangan in the eastern edge of Java, and Sunda in the western part remained Hindu kingdoms in Java. Meanwhile in the land of Sunda, Muslim influences had penetrated the kingdom.

Rise of Muslim States, Cirebon and Banten[edit]

Sunda King Prabu Jayadewata or Sri Baduga Maharaja or popularly known as King Siliwangi married Nyai Subang Larang, daughter of Ki Gedeng Tapa, port master of Muara Jati. They had three children; Prince Walangsungsang born in 1423, Princess Rara Santang born in 1426, and Prince Kian Santang (Raden Sangara) born in 1428.[4] Although Prince Walangsungsang was the first-born son of Sunda King, the prince did not earned the right as a crown prince of Pakuan Pajajaran. This was because his mother, Nyai Subang Larang was not the prameswari (queen consort). Another reason was probably because of his conversion to Islam, probably influenced by his mother, Subang Larang whom was a Muslim. In 16th century West Java, the state’s religion was theSunda Wiwitan (Sundanese ancestral religion), Hinduism and Buddhism. It was his half brother, King Siliwangi’s son from his third wife Nyai Cantring Manikmayang, who was chosen as crown prince, later ascended to the throne as King Surawisesa.

Walangsungsang, assisted by Ki Gedheng Danusela, established a new settlement called Dukuh Alang-alang in 8 April 1445. After Ki Gedeng Alang-Alang’s death in 1447, Walangsungsang appointed as the ruler of the town and established a court and assumed a new title as Prince Cakrabuana. Sri Baduga Maharaja sent his envoy Tumenggung Jagabaya and Raja Sengara (Cakrabuana’s younger brother), to bestow Prince Carkrabuana with the title Tumenggung Sri Mangana. Cirebon grew into a thriving port, yet Cakrabuana still loyal to his father and sent tribute to the main court of Sunda Pajajaran. At that time Cirebon was still the vassal of Pakuan Pajajaran.

After his Resignation in 1479 CE, Cakrabuana was succeeded by his nephew, Sharif Hidayatullah (1448-1568), the son of Nyai Rara Santang (Syarifah Mudaim) and Sharif Abdullah of Egypt. He married his cousin, Nyi Mas Pakungwati daughter of Cakrabuana. He is popularly known with his posthumously name, Sunan Gunung Jati. In 1482, the Sunda kingdom lost one of its important ports, Cirebon. On 2 April 1482, Sunan Gunungjati, the ruler of Cirebon (and also the grandson of Sri Baduga Maharaja), stated that Cirebon will no longer send tribute to Pajajaran, which marked the proclamation of the Sultanate of Cirebon as independence from Sunda Pajajaran.[4] Sunan Gunung Jati later also established the Sultanate of Banten, which later become a menace for Hindu Sunda kingdom.

The pressure from coastal Javan Islamic states drove the king of Sunda, Sri Baduga Maharaja, to seek assistance from the Portuguese at Malacca. In 1512 and again in 1521, he sent his son, the crown prince Prabu Surawisesa also known as Ratu Sang Hyang (the Portuguese record it as Samian) to Malacca to request the Portuguese to sign a peace treaty, to trade in pepper and to build a fort at his main port of Sunda Kalapa.

Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkasa, and Sunda – Portuguese Treaty in 1522[edit]

After Sri Baduga Maharaja’s death in 1521, the succeeding kings, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa, also known as Ratu Sang Hyang whom the Portuguese called Ratu Samian, faced the threat ofthe Sultanate of Banten and Demak Sultanate expanding nearer his kingdom. Under this threat, Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa, who reigned from 1521 to 1535, concluded the treaty with Portuguese from Malacca to establish a warehouse and fortress at Sunda Kelapa in return for protection against the Sultanate.

By 1522, the Portuguese were ready to form a coalition with the King of Sunda in order to get access to his profitable pepper trade. The commander of the fortress of Malacca at that time was Jorge de Albuquerque. He sent a ship, the São Sebastião, under Captain Henrique Leme, to Sunda Kalapa with valuable gifts for the king of Sunda. Two written sources describe the concluding of the treaty in detail, the original Portuguese document of 1522 with the text of the treaty and the signatories of the witnesses, and a report on that event by João de Barros in his book Da Ásia, printed after 1777/78.

According to these sources, the king welcomed them warmly upon their arrival. The Crown Prince had succeeded his father and was now King Prabu Surawisesa, although Barros called him King Samião. This Sunda ruler agreed to an arrangement of friendship with the King of Portugal and granted a fortress at the mouth of the Ciliwung River where the Portuguese could load as many ships as they wished with pepper. In addition, he pledged, dating from the start of construction on the fortress, each year he would donate one thousand sacks of pepper to the Portuguese king. The contract document was drafted into two copies and signed. On the said day in 1522, Henrique Leme of Portuguese and his entourage together with deputies of the King of Sunda, erected a commemoration stone, called Padrão, at the mouth of the Ciliwung River.

This trade and defense treaty with the Portuguese, the Luso Sundanese Treaty, fell through when the Portuguese failed to construct the fortress because of troubles in Goa India and Fatahillah conquered Sunda Kalapa harbour just before the Portuguese returned.

The army of Paletehan, also called Fadillah Khan (1487–1570), comprising around 1452 troops from the Cirebon-Demak alliance, conquered Sunda Kalapa The commander of the Sunda kingdom and his troops fell to them. The harbor chief and his family, the royal minister, and all of the people working in the harbor, lost their lives. Most of the city was destroyed, as the reinforcements sent in from Pakuan realized that their forces were too weak and retreated. Sunda Kalapa Harbour was named Jayakarta or Jakarta.

Thirty Portuguese sailors, shipwrecked by storms, swam to the beach at Kalapa only to be killed by Fadillah Khan’s men. The Portuguese recognized the political leadership had changed when they were not allowed to set foot on the land. As they were too weak for a battle, they set sail back to Malacca. The next year, a second attempt failed because of striking sailors angry at not having been paid.

The war between Cirebon-Demak alliance and the Sunda kingdom lasted almost five years. The king lost 1000 of his troops. Finally, in 1531, a peace treaty was concluded between King Surawisesa and Syarif Hidayatullah.

Prabu Surawisesa established the Prasasti Batutulis inscription stone in 1533 AD to commemorate his father. Because of ongoing battles, he often could not stay in his palace in Pakuan Pajajaran.

Subsequent kings of Sunda Kingdom were:

  • From 1535 to 1543: Ratu Dewata, also known as Sang Ratu Jaya Dewata, was his successor but not Prabu Surawisesa’s son.
  • From 1543 to 1551: Ratu Sakti, he was the fourth Pajajaran king in Pakuan.
  • From 1551 to 1567: King Nilakendra, also known as Tohaan di Majaya. Because of ongoing battles, he could not stay in the kraton. The last kings of Sunda could no longer reside in Pakuan Pajajaran because 1550s Hasanuddin, sultan of Banten launch the attack to Dayeuh Pakuan.
  • From 1567 to 1579, under the last king Raja Mulya, alias Prabu Surya Kencana, the kingdom declined essentially, particularly after 1576 due to expansive pressure, and finally collapsed in 1579. In Carita Parahyangan, his name is Nusiya Mulya. He lived in Pulasari, Pandeglang, or in Kaduhejo, Menes Subdistrict, at the slope of Mount Palasari. Thereafter the Sultanate of Banten ruled most of the former Sunda Kingdom territory.

Center of Power[edit]

Location of Pakuan Pajajaran copied from book “Kabudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran” Part 2″, 2005)

Throughout Sunda’s history, the center of power shifted between Pakuan Pajajaran, the capital of Sunda and Kawali, the capital of Galuh.

Kawali[edit]

The capital of Galuh was in the area now known as Karang Kamulyan, Ciamis, near the town of Kawali. The city was located on eastern slope of Mount Sawal near the source of the Citanduy river. A Kawali inscription was discovered here. According to tradition, the keraton in Kawali is called Surawisesa. Kawali served as the capital of the kingdom for several generations until Sri Baduga Maharaja moved the government back to Pakuan in 1482.

Pakuan Pajajaran[edit]

After the fall of Tarumanagara in the seventh century, King Tarusbawa built a new capital city inland near the source of the Cipakancilan river in present day Bogor. According to Carita Parahyangan, a manuscript from the fifteenth or sixteenth century, King Tarusbawa was only mentioned as Tohaan(Lord/King) of Sunda. He was the ancestor of a series of Sunda kings that reigned until 723 AD. Pakuan served as the capital of Sunda during the reign of several kings, and the court shifted to Kawali until Sri Baduga Maharaja moved the court from Kawali back to Pakuan. After Sri Baduga Maharaja, the capital city of the Sunda kingdom remained in Pakuan until the end of the kingdom and the fall of the city to Sultanate of Banten in 1550s.

Because Pakuan, the capital city of the Sunda kingdom laid between two parallel rivers, Ciliwung and Cisadane, it was called Pajajaran (lit. place laid between two parallel things) or Pakuan Pajajaran. Although primary local and European historical records referred to the kingdom in the western part ofJava island ss the Sunda Kingdom, the Sundanese, especially after the establishment of the Sultanate of Banten and The Sultanate of Cirebon, referred to the kingdom in this region minus the sultanates as Pakuan Pajajaran Kingdom, abbreviated as Pakuan Kingdom or Pajajaran Kingdom. The later name is more familiar for people residing in West Java and the Mataram region (currentYogyakarta and Solo).

Culture[edit]

The 8th century Cangkuang temple, cultural heritage of Galuh Kingdom

The culture of the people in Sunda kingdom blends Sunda Wiwitan; a native shamanism belief, Hinduism, and Buddhism. Several intact prehistoric megalithicsites, such as Cipari site in Kuningan and the Pangguyangan menhir and stepped pyramid in Cisolok, Sukabumi, suggest that native shamanic animism anddynamism beliefs coexisted with Hinduism and Buddhism. The native belief, Sunda Wiwitan, persists today as a way of life for the Baduy or Kanekes people who resist Islam and other foreign influences.

Hindu was one of the earliest influences in Tarumanagara. The Cangkuang Hindu temple in Leles, Garut, dated from the eighth century, was dedicated to Shivaand built during the Galuh kingdom. Buddhist influence came to West Java through the Srivijaya conquest, as the empire dominated West Java until the eleventh century. The brick stupas in Batujaya indicate Buddhist influence in West Java, while nearby Cibuaya sites show Hinduim influence.

The culture of Sunda kingdom centered on agricultural activity, especially rice cultivation. Nyi Pohaci Sanghyang Asri or Sanghyang Asri, the goddess of rice, is revered as the main deity or the highest goddess within Sundanese pantheon. The priest was concerning about the religious ceremonies and the king and his subjects participated in annual ceremonies and festivals such as the blessing of the rice seeds ceremonies and harvest festival. The annual Seren Taun rice harvest festival is still practised today in traditional Sundanese communities.

According to the Bujangga Manik manuscript, the courtly culture of Sunda kraton and its nobles’ etiquette in Pakuan Pajajaran was sophisticated. However no traces of the palace or buildings survived in the former capital, probably because their wood construction decayed over the centuries.

The Portuguese source provide a glimpse of the culture and customs of the Sunda kingdom. In his report “Suma Oriental (1512–1515)” Tomé Pires wrote:

Sunda kingdom is very rich. The land of Sunda has as much as four thousands horses which come there from Priaman (Sumatera) and other islands to be sold. It has up to forty elephants; these are for the king’s array. An inferior gold, of six carats, is found. There is abundance tamarinds which serve the native for vinegar.

The city where the king is most of the year is the great city of Dayo. The city has well-built houses of the palm leaf and wood. They say that the king’s house has three hundred and thirty wooden pillars as thick as a wine cask, and five fathoms (8 m) high, and beautiful timber work on the top of the pillars, and a very well-built house. The city is two days journey from the chief port, which is called Kalapa.

The people of Sunda are said to be truthful. They, with great city of Dayo, the town and lands and port of Bantam, the port of Pontang, the port of Cheguide, the port of Tangaram, the Port of Tangaram, the port of Calapa, the port of chi Manuk. are justly governed. The king is a great sportsman and hunter. The kingdom descends from father to son. The women are handsome, and those of the nobles chaste, which is not the case with those of the lower classes. There are monasteries of convents for the women, into which the nobles put their daughters, when they cannot match them in marriage according to their wishes. The married women, when their husband die, must, as point of honour, die with them, and if they should be afraid of death they put into the convents. The inhabitants are not very warlike, much addicted to their idolatries. They are fond of rich arms, ornamented with gold and inlaid work. Their krises are gilt, and also the point of their lances.

The people of the sea coast get along well with the merchants in the land. They are accustomed to trade. These people of Sunda very often come to Malacca to trade. They bring cargo lancharas, ships of a hundred and fifty tons. Sunda has up to six junks and many lancharas of the sunda kind, with masts like a crane, and steps between each so that they are easy to navigate.[5]

Economy[edit]

The economy of Sunda kingdom relied on agriculture, especially rice cultivation; this is reflected in Sundanese culture and the annual ceremonies of crop seeding and Seren Taun rice harvest festival. The harvest ceremony also allowed the king’s official to collect tax in the form of rice that can be stored in the state’s Leuit (rice barn). However, the kingdom was also well known as the world’s main producer of high quality pepper. The kingdom participated in spice trade network in the archipelago. The ports of Sunda participated in international trades in the region.

In Suma Oriental, written in 1512-1515, Tomé Pires, a Portuguese explorer report about the ports of Sunda:

First the king of Çumda (Sunda) with his great city of Dayo, the town and lands and port of Bantam, the port of Pomdam (Pontang), the port of Cheguide (Cigede), the port of Tamgaram(Tangerang), the port of Calapa (Kelapa), and the port of Chemano (Chi Manuk or Cimanuk), this is Sunda, because the river of Chi Manuk is the limit of both kingdoms.[5]

Antoher Portuguese explorer, Diogo do Couto, wrote that the Sunda kingdom is thriving and abundant; it lies between Java and Sumatra, separated from the latter by the Sunda Strait. Many islands lie along the coast of this kingdom within the strait, for nearly the space of forty leagues[vague]; the strait’s widest point is about twenty-five and narrowest point only twelve leagues[vague]broad. Bantam is about the midpoint. All the islands are well timbered, but have little water. A small one called Macar, at the entrance of Sunda Strait, is said to have much gold.

He also noted that the principal ports of the Sunda kingdom were Banten, Ache, Chacatara (Jakarta), which annually receive twenty sommas, ships from Chienheo, China, to ship the eight thousand bahars, which are equal to 3,000,000 kg of pepper the kingdom produced.

Bantam is situated at 6° south latitude, in the middle of a bay, three leagues from point to point. The town is eight hundreed and fifty fathoms[vague] in length, and the seaport extends about 400. A river capable of admitting junks and galleys flows through the middle of the town: a small branch of this river admits boats and small craft.

There is a brick fort, the walls of which are seven palms thick[vague], with wooden bulwarks, armed with two tiers of artillery. The anchorage is good, with a muddy or sandy bottom and a depth from two to six fathoms.

Legacy[edit]

Although the kingdom of Sunda left little archaeological remains, it remains part of culture of Sundanese people through the Pantun oral tradition, the chant of poetic verses. Sunda is revered as the prosperous and glorious golden age. The historical identity and the source of pride for Sundanese people, the same as Majapahit for Javanese people. The pantun that mentioned Sunda Kingdom (popularly known as Pakuan or Pajajaran):

Talung-talung keur pajajaran. Jaman keur aya keneh kuwerabekti. Jaman guru bumi dipusti-pusti. Jaman leungit tangtu eusina metu. Euweuh anu tani kudu ngijon. Euweuh anu tani nandonkeun karang. Euweuh anu tani paeh ku jenkel. Euweuh anu tani modar ku lapar

(Pantun Bogor: Kujang di Hanjuang siang, Sutaarga 1984:47)

Translation: It was better during the Pajajaran era, when Kuwera (the god of wealth) was still revered. The era when the earth guru was still honored. The era when something lost will be returned to the owner. No farmer had to take loans. No farmer had to sell their lands. No farmer died in vain. No farmer died in hunger.

Dinegara Pakuan sarugih. Murah sandang sarta murah pangan. Ku sakabeh geus loba pare. Berekahna Dewa Guru anu matak kabeh sarugih. Malah ka nagri lain geus kakocap manjur. Dewa Guru miwarangan ka Ki Semar: “maneh Semar geura Indit, leumpangan ka nagri pakuan!” (Wawacan Sulanjana: Plyte 1907:88)

Translation: In the prosperous kingdom of Pakuan, people lacked no food or clothing. Rice was plenteous. The blessing of Dewa Guru laid on the land, so everyone was rich. The land’s fame spread to other lands. Dewa Guru ordered Ki Semar to the kingdom of Pakuan!

Several streets in major Indonesian cities, especially in West Java, were named for Sundanese kings and Sunda Kingdom. Padjadjaran University in Bandung was named for Pakuan Pajajaran, the capital and the popular name for the Sunda Kingdom. The TNI Siliwangi Military Division and Siliwangi Stadium was named for King Siliwangi, the eponymous popular king of Sunda corresponded to Sri Baduga Maharaja.

List of rulers[edit]

Question book-new.svg
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed(November 2009)

Based on Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, the most probable timeline for the rulers of the Sunda kingdom is as follows:

Period King’s name Ruler of Capital Stone inscription Manuscript reference Events
669 – 723 Tarusbawa Sunda Pakuan Wangsakerta, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Tarusbawa renamed the remnant of Tarumanagara Sunda. Separation of Sunda and Galuh
612 – 702 Wretikandayun Galuh Galuh Wangsakerta, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Wretikandayun demanded the partition of Tarumanagara and the separation of Sunda and Galuh
702 – 709 Mandiminyak Galuh Galuh Wangsakerta, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
709 – 716 Sena/Bratasena Galuh Galuh WangsakertaCarita Parahyangan, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
716 – 723 Purbasora Galuh Galuh WangsakertaCarita Parahyangan, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Purbasora, Wretikandayun’s grandson, rebelled against Sena and took the throne of Galuh in 716
723 – 732 Sanjaya/Harisdarma/Rakeyan Jamri Sunda, Galuh, and Mataram Pakuan Canggal WangsakertaCarita Parahyangan, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Sanjaya, son of Sena’s sister, Sannaha, married Tarusbawa’s daughter, Tejakencana, and become the king of Sunda. He took revenge on Sena’s behalf against Purbasora in Galuh. Sanjaya took his right as the heir in Kalingga, established theSanjaya dynasty and Mataram Kingdom in central Java
732 – 739 Rakeyan Panaraban/Tamperan Barmawijaya Sunda and Galuh Galuh Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Panaraban, son of Sanjaya, became king of Sunda
739 – 766 Rakeyan Banga Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
766 – 783 Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
783 – 795 Prabu Gilingwesi Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
795 – 819 Pucukbumi Darmeswara Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
819 – 891 Prabu Gajah Kulon Rakeyan Wuwus Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
891 – 895 Prabu Darmaraksa Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
895 – 913 Windusakti Prabu Dewageng Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
913 – 916 Rakeyan Kemuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
916 – 942 Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Wanayasa Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
942 – 954 Prabu Resi Atmayadarma Hariwangsa Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
954 – 964 Limbur Kancana Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
964 – 973 Prabu Munding Ganawirya Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
973 – 989 Prabu Jayagiri Rakeyan Wulung Gadung Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
989 – 1012 Prabu Brajawisesa Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
1012–1019 Prabu Dewa Sanghyang Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
1019–1030 Prabu Sanghyang Ageng Sunda and Galuh Galuh Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Under Srivijaya domination
1030–1042 Prabu Detya Maharaja Sri Jayabupati Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Jayabupati Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Offspring of Srivijaya princess and Sunda King, son in-law of King Dharmawangsa of Medang. Proclaimed independence fromSrivijaya by assuming the title “Maharaja”. Established the sacred sanctuary of Sanghyang Tapak
1042–1064 Dharmaraja Sunda and Galuh Galuh Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
1064–1154 Prabu Langlangbhumi/Sang Mokteng Kreta Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
1154–1156 Rakeyan Jayagiri/Prabu Menakluhur Langlangbhumisutah Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
1156–1175 Prabu Dharmakusumah/Sang Mokteng Winduraja Sunda and Galuh Galuh Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
1175–1297 Prabu Guru Dharmasiksa Sunda and Galuh Saunggalah,Pakuan Carita Parahyangan, Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Rakeyan Jayadharma, son of Dharmasiksa, married Dyah Lembu Tal of Singhasari, and have a son Wijaya. Jayadharma died in boyhood and Dyah lembu Tal returned to Singhasari. Wijaya later establishedMajapahit. Rakeyan Saunggalah, Jayadharma’s brother, succeeded Dharmasiksa
1297–1303 Rakeyan Saunggalah/Prabu Ragasuci Sunda and Galuh Saunggalah Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Moved the capital to Saunggalah(currently Kuningan)
1303–1311 Prabu Citraganda/Sang Mokteng Tanjung Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara
1311–1333 Prabu Lingga Dewata/Sang Mokteng Kikis Sunda and Galuh Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Moved the capital from Pakuan and built a new capital Kawalinear the former Galuh capital (currently Ciamis)
1333–1340 Prabu Ajigunawisesa/Sang Mokteng Kiding Sunda and Galuh Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara Ajigunawisesa, son in-law of Prabu Lingga Dewata
1340–1350 Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabhawa/Aki Kolot Sunda and Galuh Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan
1350–1357 Prabu Maharaja Lingga Buana/Prabu Wangi Sunda and Galuh Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, PararatonCarita ParahyanganKidung Sunda Lingga Buana’s daughter Dyah Pitaloka wed king Hayam Wurukof Majapahit. However, in theBattle of Bubat (1357), the Sunda king, princess, and most of Sunda royal family died in Bubat, Majapahit. Gajah Madaheld responsible for this Pasunda Bubat incident.
1357–1371 Mangkubumi Suradipati/Prabu Bunisora Sunda and Galuh Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan Mangkubumi Suradipati temporarily ruled the kingdom on behalf of the late Prabu Wangi because the crown prince, Niskala Wastu Kancana, was still a child
1371–1475 Prabu Raja Wastu/Niskala Wastu Kancana/ Sang Mokteng Nusalarang Sunda and Galuh Kawali Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan The kingdom prospered under Niskala Wastu Kancana long reign. Later, he split Sunda and Galuh between his two sons
1475–1482 Prabu Susuk tunggal Sunda Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan Twin equal kingdom of Sunda and Galuh
1475–1482 Ningratkancana/Prabu Dewa Niskala Galuh Kawali Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan Twin equal kingdom of Sunda and Galuh
1482–1521 Sri Baduga Maharaja/Ratu Jayadewata/ Prabu Siliwangi Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan Transferred the capital back toPakuan. The kingdom consolidated its power and enjoyed stability, prosperity, and great wealth. His reign popularly celebrated as the “golden age” ofPajajaran
1521–1535 Prabu Surawisesa Jayaperkosa/Ratu Sang Hiang Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Batutulis Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita ParahyanganLuso Sundanese TreatyPadrao Sought the assistance ofPortuguese in Malacca in 1522 against pressure of Sultanate of Demak. The treaty failed, and Sunda Kingdom lost Sunda Kelapa to Fatahillah Demak forces. Batu Tulis inscription was established in 1533 to commemorate his great predecessor, Sri Baduga Maharaja
1535–1543 Ratu Dewata/Sang Ratu Jaya Dewata Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan The kingdom declininged fast and lost most of its territory toCirebon and Banten
1543–1551 Ratu Sakti Sunda and Galuh Pakuan Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan The kingdom grow weaker under the pressure of Sultanate of Banten
1551–1567 Nilakendra/Tohaan di Majaya Sunda Pakuan, Pulasari Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan The fall of Pakuan underSultanate of Banten invasion
1567–1579 Raja Mulya/Prabu Surya Kencana Sunda Pulasari Pustaka Rajyarajya i Bhumi Nusantara, Carita Parahyangan The king resided in Pulasari,Pandeglang, or in Kaduhejo, Menes Subdistrict. The kingdom finally collapsed in 1576 under pressure from the Banten

Sunda Kingdom in popular culture[edit]

Celebrated as ‘the golden era’ of ancient Indonesia, especially for Sundanese people, the Sunda kingdom has inspired many writers and artists to create works based on this era. The impact of the Sunda kingdom theme on popular culture can be seen in the following:

  1. Saur Sepuh (1987–1991), a radio drama and film by Niki Kosasih. Begun as a popular radio drama program in the late 1980s, Saur Sepuh is set in fifteenth century Java, and is about Brama Kumbara, a fictional king of Madangkara, itself a fictional kingdom neighbour of the Pajajaran. Several films and TV series are also based on the Saur Sepuh story.
  2. Prabu Siliwangi (1988), a film directed by Sofyan Sharna, about the fictionalized lifestory of King Siliwangi.
  3. Prabu Siliwangi (2009), a novel written by E Rokajat Asura, also about King Siliwangi.
  4. Dyah Pitaloka (2007), a novel written by Hermawan Aksan, about Sundanese Princess Dyah Pitaloka Citraresmi, focussed around the Bubat War. The novel virtually took the same context and was inspired by Kidung Sundayana.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. Jump up^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 437.
  2. Jump up^ Noorduyn, J. (2006). Three Old Sundanese poems. KITLV Press. p. 438.
  3. Jump up^ SJ, Adolf Heuken (1999). Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16. Cipta Loka Caraka. p. 34.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Sejarah Kabupaten Cirebon” (in Indonesian). Cirebon Regency. Retrieved 16 January 2013.
  5. Jump up to:a b Pires, Tome (1512-1515). “The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires: An Account of the East, from Red Sea to China”Armando Cortesão. Asian Educational Services, New Delhi 1990, 2005. ISBN 81-206-0535-7. Retrieved 16 January 2013.

References[edit]

  • “Maharadja Cri Djajabhoepathi, Soenda’s Oudst Bekende Vorst”, TBG, 57. Batavia: BGKW, page 201-219, 1915)
  • Sumber-sumber asli sejarah Jakarta, Jilid I: Dokumen-dokumen sejarah Jakarta sampai dengan akhir abad ke-16
  • Kebudayaan Sunda Zaman Pajajaran, Jilid 2, Edi S. Ekajati, Pustaka Jaya, 2005
  • The Sunda Kingdom of West Java From Tarumanagara to Pakuan Pajajaran with the Royal Center of Bogor, Herwig Zahorka, Yayasan Cipta Loka Caraka, Jakarta, 2007-05-20

Tinggalkan Balasan

Isikan data di bawah atau klik salah satu ikon untuk log in:

Logo WordPress.com

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Logout / Ubah )

Gambar Twitter

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Facebook

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Logout / Ubah )

Foto Google+

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Logout / Ubah )

Connecting to %s

sembrani

bertukar ide, melampaui mimpi bersama

Nurul Wirda

Semerbak Mawar yang dengan senang hati memancarkan Cahayanya

aawanto

The greatest WordPress.com site in all the land!

Covert Geopolitics

Beyond the Smoke & Mirrors

Catatan Harta Amanah Soekarno

as good as possible for as many as possible

Women Terrace

to say something that i never talk before

Kanzunqalam's Blog

AKAL tanpa WAHYU, akan berbuah, IMAN tanpa ILMU

Cahayapelangi

Cakrawala, menapaki kehidupan nusantara & dunia

religiku

hacking the religion

SANGKAN PARANING DUMADI

Just another WordPress.com site

WordPress.com

WordPress.com is the best place for your personal blog or business site.

%d blogger menyukai ini: